Nithin Bekal

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Demystifying @tenderlove's homeopathic code optimizations

05 Jun 2015

At the Keep Ruby Weird conference, Aaron Patterson, aka @tenderlove, gave a hilarious keynote talk where he mentioned homeopathic code optimizations. If you haven’t watched it yet, go watch it now.

For those that haven’t watched the video, here’s the idea: he talks about a program dilute.rb, that takes another ruby program and “dilutes” it by replacing characters with whitespace.

So if this is the original program:

# fib.rb
def fib n
  if n < 3
    1
  else
    fib(n-1) + fib(n-2)
  end
end

p fib(34)

…we run dilute.rb on it:

$ D=40 ./dilute.rb fib.rb

…it “dilutes” the program by randomly replacing 40% of the characters with whitespace (the D=40 env variable sets the percentage), so you might see something like this:

d   fib n
  if     3
    1
  else
    fib n  ) + fi (n-2
  end


p fib(3

But when you pipe the output to ruby like this:

#! /usr/bin/env ruby
$ D=40 ruby dilute.rb fib.rb | ruby
5702887

…it “remembers” the original program and works perfectly. WHAT? What kind of black magic is this? Aaron doesn’t tell us.

I never figured it out myself, but recently, I came across this gist by @radarek that finally shed some light on the magic behind this:

#! /usr/bin/env ruby
probability = $stdout.tty? ? (ENV["D"] || 10).to_i : 0
puts ARGF.read.chars.map { |c| rand(100) + 1 <= probability && c !~ /\s/ ? " " : c }.join

The important part here is the $stdout.tty? method call. This uses the IO#tty? method to determine if the output is a terminal or a program. It “dilutes” the text only if the output is a terminal. When we pipe the output to ruby, it detects that the output isn’t a terminal so it pipes the original text from fib.rb.

The more time I’ve spent trying to understand Ruby, the less magic it seems to have. So it’s nice to come across something that left me completely baffled and left me thinking, “how could that even work?”.

This was a perfect code demo for a conference called “Keep Ruby Weird”. That we have a conference with that name is what makes the Ruby community so much fun. ;)

Stay weird, and happy hacking!

Hi, I’m Nithin Bekal. I work at Shopify in Ottawa, Canada. Previously, co-founder of CrowdStudio.in and WowMakers. Ruby is my preferred programming language, and the topic of most of my articles here, but I'm also a big fan of Elixir. Tweet to me at @nithinbekal.