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cat hello.txt
echo 'Hello!'
# Sends to stdout

echo 'Bye!' > bye.txt # write to file
echo 'Bye again' >> bye.txt # Append

cat non-existent-file 2> errors.txt # redirect stderr
cat existing-file 2> errors.txt # errors.txt is empty
# prints file contents

# Combined output - both stdout and stderr
cat hello.txt non-existent.txt &> combined.txt

# Throw away all output
cat hello.txt non-existent.txt &> /dev/null

# pipes and stdin
sort hello.txt | grep Hello | sed 's/Hello/Hey/'


#! /bin/sh

set -e
set -o pipefail

echo 'Hello'
chmod +x

set -e - stop and raise immediately on any error. Always exit early.

set -o pipefail - without this, a command is considered to be failing if any of the commands in a pipeline fail.

Eg. grep foo missing-file.txt | sed 's/hello/hey'

The grep fails, and writes empty string to stdout, so sed won’t fail. This command is considered ok by default, but pipefail exits as soon as grep fails.

$? - most reent exit code - 0 indicates success

foo && bar - second thing runs only if first succeeds.

An example script:

$ ls services
rails.service postgres.service some-other-file.txt

$ cat services/rails.service
name rails
port 3000

$ cat services/postgres.service
name postgres
port 5432
#! /bin/bash

set -e
set -o pipefail

# Exit early if no arguments given
# Usage: ./ services-dir
if [ $# -eq 0 ]; then
  echo "Error: Provide the name of the services directory."
  exit 64 # Recommended code for wrong number of args

print_services() {
  # -q option -> quiet
  if grep -q port "$1" && grep -q name "$1"; do
    name=$(grep name "$1" | sed 's/name //')

    if [ $port -lt 5000 ]; then
      echo "Greater than 5000"

    echo "$1: $name $port"
    echo "$1 Missing name or port"

for file in $1/*.service; do
  print_service "$file"

Other zsh tips

Inserting last argument in zsh:

  • Use !$ to insert last command’s arg or ESC-.
  • !* inserts all args

fc or “fix command”: if you make a mistake in a command, like git pull orgiin master, run fc it will open the command in an editor where you can fix the typo. once you save and close, the new command will run

When you find yourself typing a long command (like a curl request) and it becomes hard to navigate on the terminal’s readline, you can hold (control) and then type x e. This will open up your $EDITOR and allow to edit your command more conveniently. When you save and close, the text will show up on the readline and will not be executed automatically. So you can still review it before hitting Enter.